The Union Association survived for only one season (1884), as did the Players' League (1890), an attempt to return to the National Association structure of a league controlled by the players themselves. Both leagues are considered major leagues by many baseball researchers because of the perceived high caliber of play and the number of star players featured. However, some researchers have disputed the major league status of the Union Association, pointing out that franchises came and went and contending that the St. Louis club, which was deliberately "stacked" by the league's president (who owned that club), was the only club that was anywhere close to major league caliber.
A version of this article appears in print on October 13, 2013, on page A 1 of the New York edition with the headline: The Soaring Cost of a Simple Breath. Get Free Email Alerts on These Topics Asthma Drugs (Pharmaceuticals) Prices (Fares, Fees and Rates) Series Inside Health » Too Hot to Handle Arts » The Harmony of Liberty Opinion » Should Beach Privatization Be Allowed? Room for Debate asks whether shorefront homeowners should have to open their land to all comers.