Systemic corticosteroid use in asthma

How often cortisone injections are given varies based on the reason for the injection. This is determined on a case-by-case basis by the health care practitioner. If a single cortisone injection is curative, then further injections are unnecessary. Sometimes, a series of injections might be necessary; for example, cortisone injections for a trigger finger may be given every three weeks, to a maximum of three times in one affected finger. In other instances, such as knee osteoarthritis, a second cortisone injection may be given approximately three months after the first injection, but the injections are not generally continued on a regular basis.

Corticosteroids have been used as drug treatment for some time. Lewis Sarett of Merck & Co. was the first to synthesize cortisone, using a complicated 36-step process that started with deoxycholic acid, which was extracted from ox bile . [43] The low efficiency of converting deoxycholic acid into cortisone led to a cost of US $200 per gram. Russell Marker , at Syntex , discovered a much cheaper and more convenient starting material, diosgenin from wild Mexican yams . His conversion of diosgenin into progesterone by a four-step process now known as Marker degradation was an important step in mass production of all steroidal hormones, including cortisone and chemicals used in hormonal contraception . [44] In 1952, . Peterson and . Murray of Upjohn developed a process that used Rhizopus mold to oxidize progesterone into a compound that was readily converted to cortisone. [45] The ability to cheaply synthesize large quantities of cortisone from the diosgenin in yams resulted in a rapid drop in price to US $6 per gram, falling to $ per gram by 1980. Percy Julian's research also aided progress in the field. [46] The exact nature of cortisone's anti-inflammatory action remained a mystery for years after, however, until the leukocyte adhesion cascade and the role of phospholipase A2 in the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes was fully understood in the early 1980s.

Potential oral or head and neck findings of bulimia and anorexia include dental erosion, xerostomia, increased rate of caries, and sialadenosis. Vomiting exposes teeth to acidic gastric contents, which leads to enamel erosion. The erosion pattern tends to involve the lingual surfaces of the maxillary anterior teeth ( Figure 12 ) and, in severe cases, the buccal surfaces of the posterior mandibular teeth. 39 Patients may have dental sensitivity to cold or sweet stimuli. Xerostomia may be caused by medications often used by patients with bulimia or anorexia (., antidepressants, diuretics, laxatives), as well as by vomiting and excessive exercise. 40 Because the buffering and cleansing properties of saliva are important for prevention of tooth decay, xerostomia leads to increased caries risk. Additionally, sialadenosis affects approximately 25 percent of patients with bulimia; bilateral parotid enlargement is the most common presentation. 41

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Systemic corticosteroid use in asthma

systemic corticosteroid use in asthma

Website hosted by Dreamhost . Website created and maintained by Heidi P.
DISCLAIMER:  APS Foundation of America, Inc. website is not intended to replace standard doctor-patient visits, physical examination, and medical testing. Information given to members is only an opinion. All information should be confirmed with your personal doctor. Always seek the advice of a trained physician in person before seeking any new treatment regarding your medical diagnosis or condition. Any information received from APS Foundation of America, Inc. website is not intended to diagnose, treat, or cure. This site is for informational purposes only. Please note that we will be listing all donor or purchaser's names on the Donor page of our foundation site. If you do not want your name listed, please contact us to opt out. If you think you may have a medical emergency, call your doctor or 911 immediately.

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